10 Definitions

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Definitions

1. Knowledge City (Yigitcanlar, O’Connor, and Westerman 2008) - An integrated knowledge based cluster or geographical entity (in an urban setting) that physically and institutionally combines locally focused innovation, science, creativity within the context of an expanding globalized and interconnected economy by emphasizing on the development and advancement of technologies and vibrant socio-economic activities that focus on conserving rich natural environments, quality built environments, presence of tolerance and acceptance of multiculturalism, democratic, transparent and visionary governance, and enriched human capital

Layers that comprise a city include:

  1. Knowledge base - including educational institutions and R&D activities
  2. Industrial Structure - affect progress and initial development of a KC
  3. Quality of Life and Urban Amenities - ensures a KC has necessary elements knowledge workers are attracted to build a strong knowledge base
  4. Urban Diversity and Cultural mix - as an instrument in encouraging creativity
  5. Accessibility - encourages and facilitates transfer of knowledge and its movement
  6. Social Equity and inclusion - minimizes social disparity and negative tensions
  7. Scale of a city - larger KCs tend to offer greater knowledge pool, greater diversity, and choice for knowledge workers and businesses
Contrast to Kenworthy 2006 definition of an Eco City - Ten critical eco-city dimension to support urban sustainability and encouraging development
  1. Cities have a compact, mixed-use urban form that uses land efficiently and protects the natural environment and biodiversity and food-producing areas
  2. Natural environments diffuse in city’s spaces and embraces cities, at the same time the cities surrounding areas provide a major proportion of its food needs
  3. Highways and road infrastructure are less emphasized in comparison to public transit, walking, and cycling infrastructure, having a special emphasis on rail (making car and motorcycle use diminished)
  4. Extensive use of environmental technologies for water, energy, and waste management (the city’s life support systems become closed loop systems)
  5. City centers and sub-centers within the city are human centers rather than automobile centers, emphasizing access and circulation by modes of transport other than the automobile, to which they absorb a high proportion of employment and residential growth
  6. Cities have a high quality public realm throughout, expressing public culture, community, and equity along with good governance (including the transit systems and all environments associated with it
  7. Physical structure and urban design of a city (especially with its public environments are highly legible, permeable, robust, varied, rich, and visual appropriate/personalized to human needs
  8. Economic performance of the city and employment creation are maximized through innovation, creativity, and the uniqueness of the local environment, culture, and history, as well as the high environmental social quality of the city’s public environments (tackling issues like environmental racism)
  9. Planning for the future of the city is a visionary “debate and decide” process, not a “predict and provide”, computer-driven process
  10. All decision-making and sustainability-based, integrating social, economic, or environmental considerations has to be based on compact, transit-oriented urban form principles - Such decision making processes are democratic, inclusive, empowering, and engendering of hope


2. Urban green commons (Colding 2011b) - physical green spaces in an urban setting of a diverse land ownership that depend on collective organization and management that allow individuals and interest groups participating in management to hold a rich set of bundles of rights, including rights to craft their own institutions to decide whom they want to include in such management schemes

3. Allotment Gardens - physical spaces comprised of publicly/privately held vacant lots in cities that allow neighborhood locals to grow food and plants, conduct urban greenery, and work together to achieve self sufficiency

Community Garden Permanency - The process designed to protect a community garden that is only temporary set up until the vacant lot it sits on is under construction. This process is based on collective action and strong local governance in developing a strong appearance or aesthetic that adds to the character of the neighborhood

4. Community gardens - multiple garden plots of equal size, often on municipally owned land, constituting well managed flower, bush, and tree rich sites that provide lot holders with a variety of locally resourceful flora (including vegetables, fruits, and ornamental flowers) (Colding et al. 2006)

5. Urban Resilience Management - A management process within an urban setting that contains three important characteristics:

  1. Amount of change the system can undergo and still retain the same controls on function and structure
  2. Degree to which a system is capable of self organization
  3. Ability to build and increase the capacity for learning and adaptation

6. Cognitive Resilience Building (Colding & Barthel 2012) - a mental process of human perception, memory, and reasoning that people acquire from interacting frequently with local ecosystems, shaping peoples’ experience, world views, values towards local ecosystems and ultimately towards the biosphere

7. Socio-ecological Memory (Colding & Barthel 2012) - the combined means by which knowledge, experience, and practice of ecosystem management are captured, stored, revived, and transmitted over time - forming a shared memory of a changing physical environment linked to socio-economic fluctuations, and local responses to such fluctuations

8. Municipality (Andrew Sancton 1985) - While also being providers of services, they are democratic mechanisms through which territorially based communities of people govern themselves at a local level — having municipalities amalgamate with each other to make them a stronger unit is ineffective because it erodes the foundations of our liberal democracies, undermining the notion that there can be forms of self-government existing outside the institutions of the central government

9. Park Conservancy - nonprofit organizations raising large sums of money to co-manage large urban parks in partnership with local governments (Foster Collective Action and the Urban Commons)

10. Regulatory Slippage - a process where government control or oversight of a resource significantly declines — in such circumstances, users may be tempted to use or consume this resource that degrade the value or attractiveness of the resource (even creating rivalrous conditions and adding on to the continuous degradation of a resource)

11. Friends Groups - groups of participative citizens living near a commons (such as a park) (outside of government or private oversight) to respond against regulatory slippage and invests in commons upkeep, mobilize a plan and raise support for restoration, maintenance, and preservation

12. Park Conservancy - nonprofit organization raising large sums of money to co-manage large urban parks in partnership with local governments (in the collaborating, planning, design, and implementation of capital projects).

13. Business Improvement District - nonprofit entities formed by property owners or businesses in commercial areas of city, providing street level services, small scare improvements to streets, parks, and other common areas beyond what local government is willing to hold responsibility for (Foster Nicole Stelle Garnett’s definition) - territorial subdivisions of a city in which property owners are empowered to leve, and obligated to pay, special assessments to fund supplemental public services - Well managed BIDs allow private entities to collaborate closely with local government officials to invest significant resources in a wide range of quasi-governmental services

14. Open Source Urbanism (Nikos Salingaros) - a cooperative model allowing active users to freely adapt and modify theories, research, and practices following the proven experiences and based upon specific needs and intuitions

15. Peer-2-Peer Urbanism (Nikos Salingaros - A model stemming directly off of the open source urbanism model with 5 distinct principles:

Defends the fundamental human right to choose the build environment in which to live

All citizens must have access to information concerning their environment so they can engage in the decision-making process Users themselves should participate on all levels in co-designing and building their city, being stakeholders in any changes that are being considered in their environment

Practitioners committed to generating and disseminating open source knowledge, theories, technologies, and implemented practices for human-scale urban fabric

Users of built environments have the right to implement evolutionary repositories of knowledge, skills, and practices, giving them well-adapted urban tools

Definition by G. Camarillo - P2P if the elements that form the system share their resources in order to provide the service the system has been designed to provide. The elements in the system both provide services to other elements and request services from other elements

16. Open Co-operativism - a theory combining commons-oriented open peer production models with common ownership and governance models such as those of the co-operatives and the solidarity economic models Creative Commons (CC) Non-Commercial (CC) License - offers protection to individuals reluctant to share, but not those who want to commercialize on their work and receive a reward them their hard work and or labor Peer Production License (PPL) (designed by Kleiner 2010 and Filippi/Vieria 2013) - allows commercialization based on demand for reciprocity - designed to enable a counter-hegemonic reciprocal economy combining commons open to all that contribute, while charging a license fee for profit seeking enterprises who want to use it without contributing Co-Operative model - Immaterial commons field develops from free contributions and universal use for the users —> physical production based on reciprocity —> sustainable abundance in material goods

17. Cultural Commons according to Hardt and Negri - “is dynamic, involving both the product of labor and the means of future production. This common is not only the earth we share but also the languages we create, the social practices we estab­ lish, the modes of sociality that define our relationships, and so forth.” These commons are built up over time, and are in principle open to all.

18. Social Practice of communing (Hess 2008) - producing/establishing a social relation with a common whose uses are either exclusive to a social group or partially/fully open to all and sundry

19. Enclosure of commons (Hess 2008) - the gradual and sudden decrease of accessibility of a particular resource Reasons for enclosure - increased scarcity through over consumption brought from new populations, natural disaster, neglect Enclosure is visible where new technologies have created the ability to capture recently uncapturable goods (or when informational technologies expand copyright and definition of what is patentable through new legislation, enable enclosure of previously openly accessible areas of information

20. Neighborhood Commons Sector ((Hess 2008))- incorporating both urban and rural commons where people living in close proximity come together to strengthen, manage, preserve, or protect local resource

21. Infrastructure Commons (Hess 2008) - to describe physical resource systems made by humans for public consumption This includes transportation systems, communication systems, governance systems, and basic public services and facilities

22. Academic commons - a community of faculty, academic technologists, librarians, administrators, and other academic professionals who help create comprehensive web resource focused on liberal arts education

23. Education Commons - virtual community of academic systems users, designers, and systems implementers sharing knowledge, experiences, and best practices - they organize to create an open and transparent system of communication between diverse groups committed to advancing the state of education worldwide

24. Global commons - oldest and most established “new commons”, from climate change to international treaties to trans-boundary conflicts Global commons include - economics of global commons, property rights, biodiversity, deep-seas, governance of the global commons, climate change, Antarctica and the Arctic Sea, atmosphere, global social diversity and interconnectedness, protection of the environment as a global commons, sustainability, globalization, outer space, commercial space, global genetic commons, global inequality, knowledge as a global commons

25. Polycentric order (David Harvey, Rebel Cities) - “where many elements are capable of making mutual adjustment ordering their relationships with one another within a general system of rules where each element acts with independence of other elements” according to Vincent Ostrom

Definition of Commons according to Blackmar (2006) - common property is an individual’s right not to be excluded from the uses or benefits of resources, and these resources are accessible within the confines of a community, following a shared principle that is neither public or private

Definition of Commons according to Raj Patel’s book The Value of Nothing - A commons is a resource, most often land, and refers to both the territory and the ways people allocate goods that come from that land. The commons has traditionally provided food, fuel, water, and medicinal plants for those who used it, and it was the poorest people’s life support system

Collective Action according Gilbert (2006) - A process where individuals with the same interests potentially form a group, and pursue these interests and gain forms of value from within their group by working collectively and agreeing upon decisions that are harder to make in a group

Public and Collective Good according to Samuelson (1954) - a good that is non-excludable, meaning that everyone has a right to use that good without any form of exclusion, and non-rivalrous, meaning that a user consuming that good cannot affect another user’s consumption of that good

Free-riding Problem - A process by which members of a group deliberately provide less or participate less than is required to achieve a common goal (Olsen 1968)

Common Property (Hess 2008) - formal or informal legal regime that allocates various forms of rights to a group (including access, extraction, management, exclusion, and alienation rights)

Common Pool Resource (Hess 2008) - a resource shared by a group where the resource is vulnerable to enclosure, overuse, and social dilemmas. Unlike a public good, it requires management and protection in order to sustain it