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L'architecture est l'art majeur de concevoir des espaces et de bâtir des édifices, en respectant des règles de construction empiriques ou scientifiques, ainsi que des concepts esthétiques, classiques ou nouveaux, de forme et d'agencement d'espace, en y incluant les aspects sociaux et environnementaux liés à la fonction de l'édifice et à son intégration dans son environnement, quelle que soit cette fonction : habitable, sépulcrale, rituelle, institutionnelle, religieuse, défensive, artisanale, commerciale, scientifique, signalétique, muséale, industrielle, monumentale, décorative, paysagère, voire purement artistique. C'est pourquoi l'architecture est définie comme « une expression de la culture ». Elle est reconnue comme le premier des arts majeurs dans la classification des arts, communément admise, du XXe siècle, des 9 arts majeurs et fait partie des beaux-arts. L'Architecture désigne également l'ensemble des connaissances et des techniques de cet art de concevoir et de construire des structures complexes, englobant les édifices terrestres, les espaces et les paysages modifiés par l'homme répondant à des critères architecturaux, les artefacts habitables naviguant sur l'eau et sous l'eau (architecture navale) et dans l'espace (architecture spatiale), que l'humanité a pu imaginer et réaliser au fil des millénaires. L'architecture intègre le domaine de la planification spatiale et met en pratique les méthodes de la planification au service de l'aménagement du territoire et de l'urbanisme. On distingue différentes échelles de la planification spatiale :

  • le territoire national : l'aménagement du territoire ;
  • la région, le massif ou une bande littorale : la planification régionale ;
  • le quartier, la ville, jusqu'à l'agglomération : l'urbanisme ;
  • l'îlot ou un groupe de bâtiments dont la composition n'atteint pas la superficie du quartier : la composition urbaine ;
  • le bâtiment : l'architecture. C'est ainsi que dans le cadre des études d'aménagement et urbanisme, on retrouve l'architecte le plus souvent autour des réflexions de la composition urbaine via la pratique de la conception urbaine.

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Architecture is the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction. It is both the process and the product of sketching, conceiving, planning, designing, and constructing buildings or other structures. The term comes from Latin architectura; from Ancient Greek ἀρχιτέκτων (arkhitéktōn) 'architect'; from ἀρχι- (arkhi-) 'chief', and τέκτων (téktōn) 'creator'. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. The practice, which began in the prehistoric era, has been used as a way of expressing culture for civilizations on all seven continents. For this reason, architecture is considered to be a form of art. Texts on architecture have been written since ancient times. The earliest surviving text on architectural theories is the 1st century AD treatise De architectura by the Roman architect Vitruvius, according to whom a good building embodies firmitas, utilitas, and venustas (durability, utility, and beauty). Centuries later, Leon Battista Alberti developed his ideas further, seeing beauty as an objective quality of buildings to be found in their proportions. Giorgio Vasari wrote Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects and put forward the idea of style in the Western arts in the 16th century. In the 19th century, Louis Sullivan declared that "form follows function". "Function" began to replace the classical "utility" and was understood to include not only practical but also aesthetic, psychological and cultural dimensions. The idea of sustainable architecture was introduced in the late 20th century. Architecture began as rural, oral vernacular architecture that developed from trial and error to successful replication. Ancient urban architecture was preoccupied with building religious structures and buildings symbolizing the political power of rulers until Greek and Roman architecture shifted focus to civic virtues. Indian and Chinese architecture influenced forms all over Asia and Buddhist architecture in particular took diverse local flavors. In fact, During the European Middle Ages, pan-European styles of Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals and abbeys emerged while the Renaissance favored Classical forms implemented by architects known by name. Later, the roles of architects and engineers became separated. Modern architecture began after World War I as an avant-garde movement that sought to develop a completely new style appropriate for a new post-war social and economic order focused on meeting the needs of the middle and working classes. Emphasis was put on modern techniques, materials, and simplified geometric forms, paving the way for high-rise superstructures. Many architects became disillusioned with modernism which they perceived as ahistorical and anti-aesthetic, and postmodern and contemporary architecture developed. Over the years, the field of architectural construction has branched out to include everything from ship design to interior decorating.

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Sources externes

Wikidata : Q12271
DBpedia FR : Architecture
DBpedia EN : Architecture

P2P Foundation : Architecture

Autres langues (Wikipedia)

Argitektuur (afwiki)
Architektur (alswiki)
ሥነ ሕንጻ (amwiki)
Arquitectura (anwiki)
عمارة (arwiki)
تصنيف:عمارة (arwikinews)
عمارة (arwikiquote)
هندسة معمارية (arywiki)
عماره (arzwiki)
Arquiteutura (astwiki)
স্থাপত্য (aswiki)
Vegeduropa (avkwiki)
معمارلیق (azbwiki)
Memarlıq (azwiki)
Memarlıq (azwikiquote)
Architektua (barwiki)
Arkėtektūra (bat_smgwiki)
Архитектура (bawiki)
Arkitektura (bclwiki)
Архітэктура (be_x_oldwiki)
Архітэктура (bewiki)
Rancang gedong (bewwiki)
Архитектура (bgwiki)
Архитектура (bgwikiquote)
आर्किटेक्चर (bhwiki)
Arkitekisa (biwiki)
স্থাপত্য (bnwiki)
ཁང་རྩིག་བཟོ་རིག (bowiki)
স্থাপত্য (bpywiki)
Savouriezh (brwiki)
Arhitektura (bswiki)
Arhitektura (bswikiquote)
Уран барилга (bxrwiki)
Arquitectura (cawiki)
Arquitectura (cawikiquote)
Gióng-dé̤ṳk-hŏk (cdowiki)
Arkitektura (cebwiki)
Архитектура (cewiki)
نژیاروانی (ckbwiki)
Architecture (commonswiki)
Architittura (cowiki)
Architektura (csbwiki)
Architektura (cswiki)
Architektura (cswikibooks)
Kategorie:Architektura (cswikinews)
Architektura (cswikiquote)
Архитектура (cvwiki)
Pensaernïaeth (cywiki)
Arkitektur (dawiki)
Architektur (dewiki)
Kategorie:Architektur und Bauwesen (dewikinews)
Architektur (dewikiquote)
Architektur (dewikisource)
Αρχιτεκτονική (elwiki)
Αρχιτεκτονική (elwikiquote)
Architecture (enwiki)
Category:Architecture (enwikinews)
Architecture (enwikiquote)
Architecture (enwikiversity)
Architecture (enwikivoyage)
Arkitekturo (eowiki)
Kategorio:Arkitekturo (eowikinews)
Arkitekturo (eowikiquote)
Arquitectura (eswiki)
Arquitectura (eswikiquote)
Arquitectura (DAC) (eswikisource)
Departamento de arquitectura (eswikiversity)
Arquitectura (eswikivoyage)
Arhitektuur (etwiki)
Arhitektuur (etwikiquote)
Arkitektura (euwiki)
Arkitektura (euwikiquote)
Arquitetura (extwiki)
معماری (fawiki)
معماری (fawikiquote)
Ehitüskunst (fiu_vrowiki)
Arkkitehtuuri (fiwiki)
Arkkitehtuuri (fiwikiquote)
Arch·itèctura (frpwiki)
Baukonst (frrwiki)
Architecture (frwiki)
Architecture (frwikibooks)
Catégorie:Architecture (frwikinews)
Architecture (frwikiquote)
Département:Architecture (frwikiversity)
Architeture (furwiki)
Boukeunst (fywiki)
建築學 (ganwiki)
Ailtireacht (gawiki)
Larchitèktir (gcrwiki)
Ailtireachd (gdwiki)
معماری (glkwiki)
Arquitectura (glwiki)
Jogapokuaa (gnwiki)
Ard-obbrinys (gvwiki)
Karatun gine-gine (hawiki)
אדריכלות (hewiki)
אדריכלות (hewikiquote)
Architecture (hifwiki)
वास्तुकला (hiwiki)
Arhitektura (hrwiki)
Achitekti (htwiki)
Építészet (huwiki)
Ճարտարապետություն (hywiki)
Ճարտարապետություն (hywikiquote)
Ճարտարապետութիւն (hywwiki)
Architectura (iawiki)
Arsitektur (idwiki)
Architectura (iewiki)
Arkitektura (ilowiki)
Архитектура (inhwiki)
Arkitekturo (iowiki)
Byggingarlist (iswiki)
Architettura (itwiki)
Categoria:Architettura (itwikinews)
Architettura (itwikiquote)
ᐃᒡᓗᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᓂᖏᑦ (iuwiki)
Aachitecha (jamwiki)
建築 (jawiki)
Arsitèktur (jvwiki)
Tasegda (kabwiki)
არქიტექტურა (kawiki)
Сәулет (kkwiki)
Ilusilersugaaneq (klwiki)
ವಾಸ್ತುಕಲೆ (knwiki)
건축 (kowiki)
분류:건축 (kowikinews)
فَنِ تعمیٖر (kswiki)
Avahîsazî (kuwiki)
Pennserneth (kwwiki)
Архитектура (kywiki)
Arkitektura (ladwiki)
Architectura (lawiki)
Architektur (lbwiki)
Arciteta (lfnwiki)
Architettûa (lijwiki)
Architectuur (liwiki)
Architetura (lmowiki)
ສະຖາປັດຕະຍະກຳ (lowiki)
Architektūra (ltwiki)
Arhitektūra (lvwiki)
Архитектурась (mdfwiki)
Maritrano (mgwiki)
Arsitektur (minwiki)
Архитектура (mkwiki)
വാസ്തുവിദ്യ (mlwiki)
ꯌꯨꯝꯁꯥꯂꯣꯟ (mniwiki)
Архитектур (mnwiki)
वास्तुशास्त्र (mrwiki)
Seni bina (mswiki)
Arkitettura (mtwiki)
Arquitetura (mwlwiki)
ဗိသုကာပညာ (mywiki)
Architettura (napwiki)
Bouwkeunst (nds_nlwiki)
Architektuur (ndswiki)
आर्किटेक्चर (newwiki)
Architectuur (nlwiki)
Architectuur (nlwikiquote)
Arkitektur (nnwiki)
Arkitekture (novwiki)
Arkitektur (nowiki)
Architectuthe (nrmwiki)
Arquitectura (ocwiki)
Arhitektuuru (olowiki)
Архитектурæ (oswiki)
Arkitekture (pagwiki)
Arkitectura (papwiki)
ਉਸਾਰੀ ਕਲਾ (pawiki)
Arkitecture (pcdwiki)
Aarkitekchur (pihwiki)
Architektura (plwiki)
Architektura (plwikiquote)
Architetura (pmswiki)
فن تعمیر (pnbwiki)
معماري (pswiki)
Arquitetura (ptwiki)
Categoria:Arquitetura (ptwikinews)
Arquitetura (ptwikiquote)
Sumaq wasichay kamay (quwiki)
Arhitecturâ (roa_rupwiki)
Arhitectură (rowiki)
Архітектура (ruewiki)
Архитектура (ruwiki)
Категория:Архитектура (ruwikinews)
Архитектура (ruwikiquote)
Архитектура (sahwiki)
वास्तुशास्त्रम् (sawiki)
Architittura (scnwiki)
Airchitectur (scowiki)
Architetura (scwiki)
Arhitektura (shwiki)
Architecture (simplewiki)
ගෘහ නිර්මාණ ශිල්පය (siwiki)
Architektúra (skwiki)
Arhitektura (slwiki)
Arhitektura (slwikiquote)
Uvaki (snwiki)
Arkitektura (sqwiki)
Arkitektura (sqwikiquote)
Архитектура (srwiki)
Категорија:Архитектура (srwikinews)
Архитектура (srwikiquote)
Baukunst (stqwiki)
Arsitéktur (suwiki)
Arkitektur (svwiki)
Arkitektur (svwikiquote)
Usanifu majengo (swwiki)
Baukōnszt (szlwiki)
கட்டடக்கலை (tawiki)
கட்டிடக்கலை (tawikibooks)
கட்டிடக்கலை (tawikiquote)
భవన నిర్మాణ శాస్త్రం (tewiki)
Меъморӣ (tgwiki)
สถาปัตยกรรม (thwiki)
Arkitektura (tlwiki)
Memarəti (tlywiki)
Mimarlık (trwiki)
Vuaki (tswiki)
Архитектура (ttwiki)
Архітектура (ukwiki)
Архітектура (ukwikiquote)
فن تعمیر (urwiki)
Meʼmorlik (uzwiki)
Architetura (vecwiki)
Arhitektur (vepwiki)
Kiến trúc (viwiki)
Bumav (vowiki)
Arkitektura (warwiki)
建築學 (wuuwiki)
Uyilo lwezakhiwo (xhwiki)
არქიტექტურა (xmfwiki)
ארכיטעקטור (yiwiki)
Architectuur (zeawiki)
Kiàn-tio̍k-ha̍k (zh_min_nanwiki)
建築學 (zh_yuewiki)
建筑学 (zhwiki)

Q12271 Architecture Architecture