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Eco-city - A city built from the principles of living within environmental means

Kenworthy, Jeffrey R. (2006) The Eco-City: Ten Key Transport and Planning Dimensions for Sustainable City Development. Environment and Urbanization 18(1): 67–85.

Ten critical eco-city dimensions to support urban sustainability and encouraging development according to Kenworthy (2006)

  1. Cities have a compact, mixed-use urban form that uses land efficiently and protects the natural environment and biodiversity and food-producing areas
  2. Natural environments diffuse in city’s spaces and embraces cities, at the same time the cities surrounding areas provide a major proportion of its food needs
  3. Highways and road infrastructure are less emphasized in comparison to public transit, walking, and cycling infrastructure, having a special emphasis on rail (making car and motorcycle use diminished)
  4. Extensive use of environmental technologies for water, energy, and waste management (the city’s life support systems become closed loop systems)
  5. City centers and sub-centers within the city are human centers rather than automobile centers, emphasizing access and circulation by modes of transport other than the automobile, to which they absorb a high proportion of employment and residential growth
  6. Cities have a high quality public realm throughout, expressing public culture, community, and equity along with good governance (including the transit systems and all environments associated with it
  7. Physical structure and urban design of a city (especially with its public environments are highly legible, permeable, robust, varied, rich, and visual appropriate/personalized to human needs
  8. Economic performance of the city and employment creation are maximized through innovation, creativity, and the uniqueness of the local environment, culture, and history, as well as the high environmental social quality of the city’s public environments (tackling issues like environmental racism)
  9. Planning for the future of the city is a visionary “debate and decide” process, not a “predict and provide”, computer-driven process
  10. All decision-making and sustainability-based, integrating social, economic, or environmental considerations has to be based on compact, transit-oriented urban form principles - Such decision making processes are democratic, inclusive, empowering, and engendering of hope