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Définitions Wikipedia


L’apprentissage est un ensemble de mécanismes menant à l'acquisition de savoir-faire, de savoirs ou de connaissances. L'acteur de l'apprentissage est appelé apprenant. On peut opposer l'apprentissage à l'enseignement dont le but est de dispenser des connaissances et savoirs, l'acteur de l'enseignement étant l'enseignant. Pour la psychologie inspirée du béhaviorisme, l’apprentissage est vu comme la mise en relation entre un événement provoqué par l'extérieur (stimulus) et une réaction adéquate du sujet, qui cause un changement de comportement qui est persistant, mesurable, et spécifique ou permet à l’individu de formuler une nouvelle construction mentale ou réviser une construction mentale préalable. L’historien Philippe Ariès dans son ouvrage L’enfant et la vie familiale sous l’Ancien Régime (Paris, Seuil, 1975), insiste sur l’importance qu’il convient d’attribuer à l’apprentissage. Il force les enfants à vivre au milieu des adultes, qui leur communiquent ainsi le savoir-faire et le savoir-vivre. Le mélange des âges qu’il entraîne lui paraît un des traits dominants de notre société, du milieu du Moyen Âge au XVIIIe siècle. La psychologie du développement étudie les changements, acquisitions et pertes, de la vie embryonnaire à la mort. L'apprentissage est un concept important étudié par cette discipline. On a découvert en 2016 que l'apprentissage pouvait exister même dans certains organismes unicellulaires.

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Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines; there is also evidence for some kind of learning in certain plants. Some learning is immediate, induced by a single event (e.g. being burned by a hot stove), but much skill and knowledge accumulate from repeated experiences. The changes induced by learning often last a lifetime, and it is hard to distinguish learned material that seems to be "lost" from that which cannot be retrieved. Human learning starts at birth (it might even start before in terms of an embryo's need for both interaction with, and freedom within its environment within the womb.) and continues until death as a consequence of ongoing interactions between people and their environment. The nature and processes involved in learning are studied in many established fields (including educational psychology, neuropsychology, experimental psychology, cognitive sciences, and pedagogy), as well as emerging fields of knowledge (e.g. with a shared interest in the topic of learning from safety events such as incidents/accidents, or in collaborative learning health systems). Research in such fields has led to the identification of various sorts of learning. For example, learning may occur as a result of habituation, or classical conditioning, operant conditioning or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals. Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. Learning that an aversive event can't be avoided or escaped may result in a condition called learned helplessness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development. Play has been approached by several theorists as a form of learning. Children experiment with the world, learn the rules, and learn to interact through play. Lev Vygotsky agrees that play is pivotal for children's development, since they make meaning of their environment through playing educational games. For Vygotsky, however, play is the first form of learning language and communication, and the stage where a child begins to understand rules and symbols. This has led to a view that learning in organisms is always related to semiosis, and often associated with representational systems/activity.

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Sources externes

Wikidata : Q133500
DBpedia FR : Apprentissage
DBpedia EN : Learning

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Q133500 Learning Apprentissage