Justice transitionnelle: l'expérience Marocaine
Le projet Justice transitionnelle : l’expérience marocaine vise à partager des vidéos sur l'expérience de justice transitionnelle et de réparation communautaire qui a suivi la période des «années de plomb» au Maroc. Ces vidéos évoquent la façon de préserver la mémoire des communautés des victimes et quels types d’audiences publiques ont eu lieu. Ces audiences ont été le point culminant d’un vaste processus de délibération citoyenne, de compassion et de liberté d’expression au Maroc. Ces vidéos abordent la façon dont le projet de réparation communautaire fonctionne pour améliorer les conditions de vie des populations dans les communautés de victimes et les responsabiliser. En fait, ces matériaux ont principalement porté sur les femmes et les enfants.
Action(s) : Diffusion
- Version française : http://www.remixthecommons.org/projet/justice-transitionnelle-lexperience-marocaine/
- English version: http://www.remixthecommons.org/en/projet/justice-transitionnelle-lexperience-marocaine
Project Justice transitionnelle: l'expérience Marocaine plans to share those extremely important Moroccan experiences about transitional justice and community reparation on Remix the Commons platform. Alternatives Forum in Morocco(FMAS) and Portail E-joussour take in charge of this project, which both based in Rabat, Morroco.
In Morocco, from 1959 to 1999, Former King Hassan II often ruled his country with an iron fist. That period is called as the years of lead in Morocco, during which those who were considered a threat to the regime were subject to a wide range of human rights violations. Thousands were subjected to arbitrary arrest, torture, and enforced disappearance, leaving behind a bitter legacy.
However, starting in the early 1990s, a gradual process of dealing with the past began to take root, culminating most recently in the work of the Moroccan Equity and Reconciliation Commission (Instance Équité et Réconciliation (IER)), established by the successor to the throne, King Mohammed VI.
On January 7, 2004, the IER was created, which is the first truth commission in the Arab world. This also has been hailed internationally as a big step forward, and an example to the Arab world. Since that, the IER has been working on addressing the terrible legacy of this era by investigating some of the worst abuses in Morocco and arranging reparations for victims and their families.
Over the duration of its mandate, the IER has amassed an archive of more than 20,000 personal testimonies from victims and their families, which has been organized in a central database in Rabat. It has conducted a range of meetings, conferences, and seminars around a multitude of issues that are keys to understanding Morocco’s past and present.
It has also taken the monumental step of holding public hearings to give victims a platform from which to share their sufferings. Throughout its work, the Commission has aimed to document, preserve, and analyze the roots of the crisis in an attempt to help Morocco come to terms with its past.
Project Justice transitionnelle, l'expérience Marocaine aims to share videos about the process of transitional justice and community reparation and to preserve memory of victim communities during “the years of lead” in Morocco and what kinds of public hearings took place, in fact those hearings gave the highlight of an extensive process of citizen deliberation, compassion and free expression in Morocco. They also talked about lots of stories about how community reparation project aimed to improve the living conditions of the people in victim communities and empower them. In fact, those materials mainly focused on women and children.
For Morocco, the Community Reparation Project is a huge project contributed to transitional justice. A total sum of 159 million Dirhams was mobilized and total number of completed projects was 149.
Project Justice transitionnelle: l'expérience Marocaine believes Moroccan experiences in transitional justice as commons are useful and valuable to other countries, especially to Arabic countries have the similar history of transitional justice, such as Iraq, Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Algeria and so on.
In the next step, Project Justice transitionnelle: l'expérience Marocaine will keep on sharing more historical videos and materials about experiences in transitional justice, such as the videos of public hearings, the videos of public seminars and conferences, historical pictures and final reports of the community reparation project.
As open resources, these documentaries, videos and reports are free to use for the public goods.
Videos and Documentaries
Documentaries: Community Reparation Program in Morocco is a compilation box, which contains fifteen CDs and DVDs that show a reparation modality that the Equity and Reconciliation Commission (IER) implemented part of community reparation, published by the Moroccan National Human Rights Council(CNDH), In January 2013.
These 15 CDS and DVDS include abundant and useful historical archives of community reparation in Morocco : documentaries, reports, news articles and photos. Most of documentris, articals and reports are in French or Arabic.
Videos: Public Hearings is a compilation box, which contains fifteen DVDs of public hearings which were organized by the Equity and Reconciliation Commission (IER), published by Conseil Consultatif Des Driots de I'HOMME(CCDH).
Those public hearings took place in several cities, such as Figuige, Khenifra, El-houssaim, Marrakech, Rabat, El Rachidia. In them, the victims of years of lead were called to testify freely about their suffering, without naming their torturers. For the organizers of the hearings, it is not to "judge" but to "establish the truth" and "reconcile".
This documantary(English name:Our Forbidden Places) is a work of Moroccan female director Leila Kilani, released in 30 September 2009 (France).
During the oppressive reign of Moroccan King Hassan II in the 70's and 80's (a.k.a. Years of Lead) many dissidents went missing. After the throning of a new king, a truth commission was formed in the 2000's. Families of the missing speak.
In 2004, the King of Morocco launched an Equity and Reconciliation Commission to investigate state violence during the Years of Lead. For three years, the film follows four families in their search for the truth: Activist, young rebel soldier or simple citizen, either they or their relations were imprisoned in different parts of Morocco. Each person tries to "find out", discover a "reason", to be able to mourn. But forty years later, the state secret finally unveils the existence of another, more intimate secret, the family secret. They all feel the need to reconstruct history and recover their parents, taken from them twice over, once by their disappearance and another by the secret. Choosing between deeply set silences, lies and taboos within and outside the families, over forty years.
"Fiction&histoire du temps présent : 6 Films Marocains"(English: Fiction and History in Our Time : 6 Moroccan Films) were published by The National Council for Human Rights (CNDH). These 6 Moroccan films about "the years of lead" were produced between 2000-2004, which confront and rethink profoundly the latest and most complicated parts of Moroccan history.They are:
- Taif Nizar (2002, Director:Kamal Kamal)
- Ali, Rabia et les autres…… (2000, Director:Ahmed Boulane)
- Mona Saber (2001, Director: Abdelhai Laraki)
- Memoire en Detention (2004, Director: Jilali Ferhati)
- La Chambre Noire (2004, Director: Hassan Benjelloun)
- Jawhara Fille de Prison (2000, Director: Saad Chraibi)
Research and Reports
- Final Reports of IER（Arabic Version）, published by The Advisory Council on Human Rights, 2009.
- Final Reports of IER（French Version）, published by The Advisory Council on Human Rights, 2009.
- Final Reports of IER（English Version）, published by The Advisory Council on Human Rights, 2009.
- Final Reports of IER（Spanish Version）, published by The Advisory Council on Human Rights, 2009.
- Transitional Justice in Morocco: A Progress Report, published by ICTJ, 2005.11
- The Rabat Report: The Concept and Challenges of Collective Reparations, published by ICTJ,2009.02
- Women and Political Violence during the Years of Lead in Morocco, Author: Nadia Guessous, published by The Consultative Council on Human Rights, 2009.02
- Follow-up Report on the Implementation of Equity and Reconciliation Commission Recommendations, published by the Advisory Council on Human Rights, 2009.12
- Morocco: Gender and the Transitional Justice Process, Author: Julie Guillerot, Naima Benwakrim, Maria Ezzaouini, Widad Bouab, published by ICTJ, 2011.09
- The Experience of Transitional Justice in Morocco(Arabic Version “تجربة العدالة الانتقالية في المغرب"), Author: Abdul Karim Abdul Levite, published by Cairo Institute For Human Rights Studies(CIHRS), 2013.07
- IER official website
- National Human Rights Council (Morocco) (CCDH)
- The International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ)
- Remix the Commons Project
- Fait partie de la collection Community Reparation in Morocco