Urban Resilience Management
|Urban resilience has conventionally been defined as the "measurable ability of any urban system, with its inhabitants, to maintain continuity through all shocks and stresses, while positively adapting and transforming towards sustainability". Therefore, a resilient city is one that assesses, plans and acts to prepare for and respond to hazards - natural and human-made, sudden and slow-onset, expected and unexpected. Resilient Cities are better positioned to protect and enhance people's lives, secure development gains, foster an investible environment, and drive positive change. Academic discussion of urban resilience has focused primarily on three distinct threats; climate change, natural disasters, and terrorism. Resilience to these threats has been discussed in the context of non-physical, as well as, physical aspects of urban planning and design. Accordingly, resilience strategies have tended to be conceived of in terms of counter-terrorism, other disasters (earthquakes, wildfires, tsunamis, coastal flooding, solar flares, etc.), and infrastructure adoption of sustainable energy. More recently, there has been an increasing attention to genealogies of urban resilience and the capability of urban systems to adapt to changing conditions. This branch of resilience theory builds on a notion of cities as highly complex adaptive systems. The implication of this insight is to move urban planning away from conventional approaches based in geometric plans to an approach informed by network science that involves less interference in the functioning of cities. Network science provides a way of linking city size to the forms of networks that are likely to enable cities to function in different ways. It can further provide insights into the potential effectiveness of various urban policies. This requires a better understanding of the types of practices and tools that contribute to building urban resilience. Genealogical approaches explore the evolution of these practices over time, including the values and power relations underpinning them. Building resilience in cities relies on investment decisions that prioritize spending on activities that offer alternatives, which perform well in different scenarios. Such decisions need to take into account future risks and uncertainties. Because risk can never be fully eliminated, emergency and disaster planning is crucial. Disaster risk management frameworks, for example, offer practical opportunities for enhancing resilience. More than half of the world's human population has lived in cities since 2007, and urbanization is calculated to rise to 80% by 2050. This means that the major resilience challenges of our era, such as poverty reduction, natural hazards and climate change, environmental sustainability, and social inclusion, will be won or lost in cities. Mass density of people makes them especially vulnerable both to the impacts of acute disasters and the slow, creeping effects of the changing climate; all making resilience planning critically important. At the same time, growing urbanization over the past century has been associated with a considerable increase in urban sprawl. Resilience efforts address how individuals, communities and business not only cope on the face of multiple shocks and stresses, but also exploit opportunities for transformational development. As one way of addressing disaster risk in urban areas, national and local governments, often supported by international funding agencies, engage in resettlement. This can be preventative, or occur after a disaster. While this reduces people’s exposure to hazards, it can also lead to other problems, which can leave people more vulnerable or worse off than they were before. Resettlement needs to be understood as part of long-term sustainable development, not just as a means for disaster risk reduction.|
Autres langues (Wikipedia)
Urban Resilience Management - A management process of resilience within an urban setting that contains three characteristics:
- Amount of change the system can undergo and still retain the same controls on function and structure
- Degree to which a system is capable of self organization
- Ability to build and increase the capacity for learning and adaptation
Colding, Johan, and Stephan Barthel (2013) The Potential of “Urban Green Commons” in the Resilience Building of Cities. Ecological Economics 86. Sustainable Urbanisation: A Resilient Future: 156–166.