Tragédie des communs

De Remix Biens Communs

Définition(s)

Définitions générales

[modifier]
The tragedy of the commons is a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users, acting independently according to their own self-interest, behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling the shared resource through their collective action. The theory originated in an essay written in 1833 by the British economist William Forster Lloyd, who used a hypothetical example of the effects of unregulated grazing on common land (also known as a "common") in Great Britain and Ireland. The concept became widely known as the "tragedy of the commons" over a century later due to an article written by American biologist and philosopher Garrett Hardin in 1968. In this modern economic context, "commons" is taken to mean any shared and unregulated resource such as atmosphere, oceans, rivers, ocean fish stocks, or even an office refrigerator. The term is used in environmental science. The "tragedy of the commons" is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation and sociology. Although common resource systems have been known to collapse due to overuse (such as in over-fishing), many examples have existed and still do exist where members of a community with access to a common resource co-operate or regulate to exploit those resources prudently without collapse. Elinor Ostrom was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economics for demonstrating exactly this concept in her book Governing the Commons, which included examples of how local communities were able to do this without top-down regulations or privatization.

Source : http://dbpedia.org/resource/Tragedy_of_the_commons

External references (Wikipedia)

Reference
http://www.conservation-strategy.org/en/csf-econ-video-lessons%3Fterm_node_tid_depth=381
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/
https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/50454/4/1072r_08_Kopelman.pdf
https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.223567
https://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Rachlin1.pdf
https://localizationpapers.org/averting-the-tragedy-of-the-commons/
https://books.google.com/books%3Fid=Fb39hy6e6KIC
https://books.google.com/books%3Fid=pWpMEzIUl2IC&pg=PA105
https://web.archive.org/web/20081208142616/http:/www.socialistvoice.ca/%3Fp=316
https://web.archive.org/web/20170809021751/http:/www.professormarkvanvugt.com/images/files/HowaStructuralSolutiontoaRealWorldSocialDilemmaFailed-SocialPsychologyQuarterly-1996.pdf
https://www.academia.edu/4240985
http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php%3Frecord_id=10287%7Cchapter-url=https:/www.nap.edu/read/10287/chapter/6%7Cchapter=Factors
http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/TragedyoftheCommons.html
http://mrzine.monthlyreview.org/2008/angus250808.html
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/3113/buck_NoTragedy.pdf%3Fsequence=1&isAllowed=y
http://www.greens.org/s-r/24/24-26.html
http://www.scq.ubc.ca/tragedy-of-the-commons-explained-with-smurfs/
http://www.professormarkvanvugt.com/images/files/CommunityIdentificationModeratingtheImpactofFinancialIncentives-PersonalityandSocialPsychologyBulletin.pdf
http://www.professormarkvanvugt.com/images/files/HowaStructuralSolutiontoaRealWorldSocialDilemmaFailed-SocialPsychologyQuarterly-1996.pdf
http://www.professormarkvanvugt.com/images/files/van%20Vugt%202009%20-%20Triumph%20of%20Commons.pdf
https://archive.org/details/cu31924079597336%3C!--
https://drive.google.com/open%3Fid=0B3B4ch5t5KtnSy11anZ6eS1lLW8&authuser=0=.pdf%7Cdoi=10.3917/rhmc.601.0007
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/162/3859/1243.full.pdf%7Cjournal=Science%7Cvolume=162%7Cissue=3859%7Cpages=1243%E2%80%931248%7Cbibcode=1968Sci...162.1243H%7Cdoi=10.1126/science.162.3859.1243%7Cpmc=%7Cpmid=5699198%7Cref=harv


Médias référencés

Enjeu (4)

Sources

Wikidata : Q334622
DBpedia EN : Tragedy_of_the_commons
P2P Foundation : Tragedy_of_the_Commons
Digital Library of the Commons : Tragedy Commons

Autres langues (Wikipedia)

تراجيديا المشاع (arwiki)
Трагедията на общите блага (bgwiki)
Tragèdia dels comuns (cawiki)
Tragédie občiny (cswiki)
Tragik der Allmende (dewiki)
Τραγωδία των Κοινών (elwiki)
Tragedy of the commons (enwiki)
Tragedia de los bienes comunales (eswiki)
Ühisomanditragöödia (etwiki)
تراژدی انبازه‌ها (fawiki)
Yhteismaan ongelma (fiwiki)
Tragédie des biens communs (frwiki)
הטרגדיה של נחלת הכלל (hewiki)
A közlegelők tragédiája (huwiki)
Tragedi kepemilikan bersama (idwiki)
Harmleikur almenninganna (iswiki)
Tragedia dei beni comuni (itwiki)
コモンズの悲劇 (jawiki)
공유지의 비극 (kowiki)
Bendruomenių tragedija (ltwiki)
Lozan’ny fananana iombonana (mgwiki)
Tragedie van de meent (nlwiki)
Allmenningens tragedie (nnwiki)
Allmenningens tragedie (nowiki)
Tragedia wspólnego pastwiska (plwiki)
Tragédia dos comuns (ptwiki)
Трагедия общих ресурсов (ruwiki)
Категория:Трагедия общин (ruwikinews)
Tragedy of the commons (simplewiki)
Tragedija skupnega (slwiki)
Allmänningens dilemma (svwiki)
பொதுமங்களின் அவலம் (tawiki)
โศกนาฏกรรมของสาธารณสมบัติ (thwiki)
Ortak varlıkların trajedisi (trwiki)
Трагедія спільного (ukwiki)
مشترکہ املاک کا المیہ (urwiki)
Bi kịch của mảnh đất công (viwiki)
公地悲劇 (zh_yuewiki)
公地悲劇 (zhwiki)

Q334622 Tragedy_of_the_commons


Tragedy_of_the_Commons Tragedy Commons

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