Tragédie des communs

De Remix Biens Communs

Définition(s)

Définitions générales

[modifier]
In economic science, the tragedy of the commons is a situation in which individual users, who have open access to a resource unhampered by shared social structures or formal rules that govern access and use, act independently according to their own self-interest and, contrary to the common good of all users, cause depletion of the resource through their uncoordinated action. The concept originated in an essay written in 1833 by the British economist William Forster Lloyd, who used a hypothetical example of the effects of unregulated grazing on common land (also known as a "common") in Great Britain and Ireland. The concept became widely known as the "tragedy of the commons" over a century later after an article written by Garrett Hardin in 1968. Although open-access resource systems may collapse due to overuse (such as in over-fishing), many examples have existed and still do exist where members of a community with regulated access to a common resource co-operate to exploit those resources prudently without collapse, or even creating "perfect order". Elinor Ostrom was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize in Economic Science for demonstrating exactly this concept in her book Governing the Commons, which included examples of how local communities were able to do this without top-down regulations or privatization. In a modern economic context, "commons" is taken to mean any open-access and unregulated resource such as the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, ocean fish stocks, or even an office refrigerator. In a legal context, it is a type of property that is neither private nor public, but rather held jointly by the members of a community, who govern access and use through social structures, traditions, or formal rules. In environmental science, the "tragedy of the commons" is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation, and sociology.

Source : http://dbpedia.org/resource/Tragedy_of_the_commons

External references (Wikipedia)

Reference
http://www.conservation-strategy.org/en/csf-econ-video-lessons%3Fterm_node_tid_depth=381
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/
https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/50454/4/1072r_08_Kopelman.pdf
https://evolution.binghamton.edu/evos/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Rachlin1.pdf
https://localizationpapers.org/averting-the-tragedy-of-the-commons/
https://books.google.com/books%3Fid=Fb39hy6e6KIC
https://books.google.com/books%3Fid=pWpMEzIUl2IC&pg=PA105
https://web.archive.org/web/20081208142616/http:/www.socialistvoice.ca/%3Fp=316
https://web.archive.org/web/20170809021751/http:/www.professormarkvanvugt.com/images/files/HowaStructuralSolutiontoaRealWorldSocialDilemmaFailed-SocialPsychologyQuarterly-1996.pdf
https://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download%3Fdoi=10.1.1.364.7681&rep=rep1&type=pdf
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http://science.sciencemag.org/content/sci/162/3859/1243.full.pdf%7Cjournal=Science%7Cvolume=162%7Cissue=3859%7Cpages=1243%E2%80%931248%7Cbibcode=1968Sci...162.1243H%7Cdoi=10.1126/science.162.3859.1243%7Cpmid=5699198
http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/TragedyoftheCommons.html
http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/dlc/bitstream/handle/10535/3113/buck_NoTragedy.pdf%3Fsequence=1&isAllowed=y
http://www.greens.org/s-r/24/24-26.html
http://www.scq.ubc.ca/tragedy-of-the-commons-explained-with-smurfs/
http://www.professormarkvanvugt.com/images/files/CommunityIdentificationModeratingtheImpactofFinancialIncentives-PersonalityandSocialPsychologyBulletin.pdf
http://www.professormarkvanvugt.com/images/files/HowaStructuralSolutiontoaRealWorldSocialDilemmaFailed-SocialPsychologyQuarterly-1996.pdf
http://www.professormarkvanvugt.com/images/files/van%20Vugt%202009%20-%20Triumph%20of%20Commons.pdf
https://archive.org/details/cu31924079597336%3C!--
https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.223567
https://drive.google.com/open%3Fid=0B3B4ch5t5KtnSy11anZ6eS1lLW8&authuser=0=.pdf%7Cdoi=10.3917/rhmc.601.0007
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http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php%3Frecord_id=10287%7Cchapter-url=https:/www.nap.edu/read/10287/chapter/6%7Cchapter=Factors


Médias référencés

Enjeu (4)

Sources

Wikidata : Q334622
DBpedia EN : Tragedy_of_the_commons
P2P Foundation : Tragedy_of_the_Commons
Digital Library of the Commons : Tragedy Commons

Autres langues (Wikipedia)

تراجيديا المشاع (arwiki)
Трагедията на общите блага (bgwiki)
Tragèdia dels comuns (cawiki)
Tragédie občiny (cswiki)
Tragik der Allmende (dewiki)
Τραγωδία των Κοινών (elwiki)
Tragedy of the commons (enwiki)
Tragedia de los bienes comunales (eswiki)
Ühisomanditragöödia (etwiki)
تراژدی انبازه‌ها (fawiki)
Yhteismaan ongelma (fiwiki)
Tragédie des biens communs (frwiki)
הטרגדיה של נחלת הכלל (hewiki)
A közlegelők tragédiája (huwiki)
Tragedi kepemilikan bersama (idwiki)
Harmleikur almenninganna (iswiki)
Tragedia dei beni comuni (itwiki)
コモンズの悲劇 (jawiki)
공유지의 비극 (kowiki)
Bendruomenių tragedija (ltwiki)
Lozan’ny fananana iombonana (mgwiki)
Tragedie van de meent (nlwiki)
Allmenningens tragedie (nnwiki)
Allmenningens tragedie (nowiki)
Tragedia wspólnego pastwiska (plwiki)
Tragédia dos comuns (ptwiki)
Трагедия общих ресурсов (ruwiki)
Категория:Трагедия общин (ruwikinews)
Tragedy of the commons (simplewiki)
Tragedija skupnega (slwiki)
Allmänningens dilemma (svwiki)
பொதுமங்களின் அவலம் (tawiki)
โศกนาฏกรรมของสาธารณสมบัติ (thwiki)
Ortak varlıkların trajedisi (trwiki)
Трагедія спільного (ukwiki)
مشترکہ املاک کا المیہ (urwiki)
Bi kịch của mảnh đất công (viwiki)
公地悲劇 (zh_yuewiki)
公地悲劇 (zhwiki)

Q334622 Tragedy_of_the_commons


Tragedy_of_the_Commons Tragedy Commons

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