Tragédie des communs

De Remix Biens Communs


Définitions générales

The tragedy of the commons is an economic theory of a situation within a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting that resource through their collective action. The concept and name originate in an essay written in 1833 by the Victorian economist William Forster Lloyd, who used a hypothetical example of the effects of unregulated grazing on common land (then colloquially called "the commons") in the British Isles. The concept became widely known over a century later due to an article written by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in 1968. In this context, commons is taken to mean any shared and unregulated resource such as atmosphere, oceans, rivers, fish stocks, or even an office refrigerator. The tragedy of the commons is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation and sociology. Although commons have been known to collapse due to overuse (such as in over-fishing), many examples exist where communities use common resources prudently without collapse. According to the political economist Elinor Ostrom, although it is often claimed that only private ownership or government regulation can prevent the "tragedy of the commons", it is in the interests of the users of a commons to manage it prudently, and complex social schemes are often devised by them for maintaining common resources efficiently.

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Médias référencés

Enjeu (4)


Wikidata : Q334622
DBpedia EN : Tragedy_of_the_commons
P2P Foundation : Tragedy_of_the_Commons
Digital Library of the Commons : Tragedy Commons

Autres langues (Wikipedia)

تراجيديا المشاع (arwiki)
Трагедията на общите блага (bgwiki)
Tragèdia dels comuns (cawiki)
Tragédie občiny (cswiki)
Tragik der Allmende (dewiki)
Τραγωδία των Κοινών (elwiki)
Tragedy of the commons (enwiki)
Tragedia de los bienes comunales (eswiki)
Ühisomanditragöödia (etwiki)
تراژدی انبازه‌ها (fawiki)
Yhteismaan ongelma (fiwiki)
Tragédie des biens communs (frwiki)
הטרגדיה של נחלת הכלל (hewiki)
A közlegelők tragédiája (huwiki)
Tragedi kepemilikan bersama (idwiki)
Harmleikur almenninganna (iswiki)
Tragedia dei beni comuni (itwiki)
コモンズの悲劇 (jawiki)
공유지의 비극 (kowiki)
Bendruomenių tragedija (ltwiki)
Lozan’ny fananana iombonana (mgwiki)
Tragedie van de meent (nlwiki)
Allmenningens tragedie (nnwiki)
Allmenningens tragedie (nowiki)
Tragedia wspólnego pastwiska (plwiki)
Tragédia dos comuns (ptwiki)
Трагедия общих ресурсов (ruwiki)
Категория:Трагедия общин (ruwikinews)
Tragedy of the commons (simplewiki)
Tragedija skupnega (slwiki)
Allmänningens dilemma (svwiki)
பொதுமங்களின் அவலம் (tawiki)
โศกนาฏกรรมของสาธารณสมบัติ (thwiki)
Ortak varlıkların trajedisi (trwiki)
Трагедія спільного (ukwiki)
مشترکہ املاک کا المیہ (urwiki)
Bi kịch của mảnh đất công (viwiki)
公地悲劇 (zh_yuewiki)
公地悲劇 (zhwiki)

Q334622 Tragedy_of_the_commons

Tragedy_of_the_Commons Tragedy Commons