Tragédie des communs

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In economic science, the tragedy of the commons is a situation in which individual users, who have open access to a resource unhampered by shared social structures or formal rules that govern access and use, act independently according to their own self-interest and, contrary to the common good of all users, cause depletion of the resource through their uncoordinated action. The concept originated in an essay written in 1833 by the British economist William Forster Lloyd, who used a hypothetical example of the effects of unregulated grazing on common land (also known as a "common") in Great Britain and Ireland. The concept became widely known as the "tragedy of the commons" over a century later after an article written by Garrett Hardin in 1968. Faced with evidence of historical and existing commons, Hardin later retracted his original thesis, stating that the title should have been "The Tragedy of the Unmanaged Commons". Although taken as a hypothetical example by Lloyd, the historical demise of the commons of Britain and Europe resulted not from misuse of long-held rights of usage by the commoners, but from the commons' owners enclosing and appropriating the land, abrogating the commoners' rights. Although open-access resource systems may collapse due to overuse (such as in overfishing), many examples have existed and still do exist where members of a community with regulated access to a common resource co-operate to exploit those resources prudently without collapse, or even creating "perfect order". Elinor Ostrom was awarded the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for demonstrating this concept in her book , which included examples of how local communities were able to do this without top-down regulations or privatization. On the other hand, Dieter Helm argues that these examples are context-specific and the tragedy of the commons "is not generally solved this way. If it were, the destruction of nature would not have occurred." In a modern economic context, "commons" is taken to mean any open-access and unregulated resource such as the atmosphere, oceans, rivers, ocean fish stocks, or even an office refrigerator. In a legal context, it is a type of property that is neither private nor public, but rather held jointly by the members of a community, who govern access and use through social structures, traditions, or formal rules. In environmental science, the "tragedy of the commons" is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation, and sociology.

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Sources externes

Wikidata : Q334622

DBpedia EN : Tragedy_of_the_commons

P2P Foundation : Tragedy_of_the_Commons
Digital Library of the Commons : {{#vardefine:q1|Tragedy }}{{#vardefine:q2|Commons }}{{#vardefine:q3| }}Tragedy Commons

Autres langues (Wikipedia)

Tragedie van die gemene goed (afwiki)
تراجيديا المشاع (arwiki)
Трагедията на общите блага (bgwiki)
Tragedija zajedničkog dobra (bswiki)
Tragèdia dels comuns (cawiki)
Tragédie občiny (cswiki)
Tragik der Allmende (dewiki)
Τραγωδία των Κοινών (elwiki)
Tragedy of the commons (enwiki)
Tragedia de los bienes comunales (eswiki)
Ühisomanditragöödia (etwiki)
تراژدی انبازه‌ها (fawiki)
Yhteismaan ongelma (fiwiki)
Tragédie des biens communs (frwiki)
הטרגדיה של נחלת הכלל (hewiki)
A közlegelők tragédiája (huwiki)
Tragedi kepemilikan bersama (idwiki)
Harmleikur almenninganna (iswiki)
Tragedia dei beni comuni (itwiki)
コモンズの悲劇 (jawiki)
공유지의 비극 (kowiki)
Bendruomenių tragedija (ltwiki)
Lozan’ny fananana iombonana (mgwiki)
Tragedie van de meent (nlwiki)
Allmenningens tragedie (nnwiki)
Allmenningens tragedie (nowiki)
Tragedia wspólnego pastwiska (plwiki)
Tragédia dos comuns (ptwiki)
Трагедия общих ресурсов (ruwiki)
Категория:Трагедия общин (ruwikinews)
Tragedy of the commons (simplewiki)
Tragedija skupnega (slwiki)
Allmänningens dilemma (svwiki)
பொதுமங்களின் அவலம் (tawiki)
โศกนาฏกรรมของสาธารณสมบัติ (thwiki)
Ortak varlıkların trajedisi (trwiki)
Трагедія спільного (ukwiki)
مشترکہ املاک کا المیہ (urwiki)
Bi kịch của mảnh đất công (viwiki)
公地悲劇 (zh_yuewiki)
公地悲劇 (zhwiki)

Q334622 Tragedy_of_the_commons

Tragedy_of_the_Commons Tragedy Commons