En 2013, en Écosse, les communautés de Falkirk et des environs ont mis en place une charte communautaire pour lutter contre l'extraction du méthane de houille (un procédé similaire à la fracturation hydraulique). Les habitants se sont réunis pour dresser la liste de ce qu'ils estimaient important et voulaient protéger afin de préserver leur santé, leur mode de vie et le bien-être futur de leurs enfants et petits-enfants. Ils ont également imaginé à quoi ressemblerait une économie locale viable à long terme et ce qu'ils pourraient faire pour s'assurer que le monde naturel qui les entourait soit indemne. Cette charte a été l'un des outils pour faire reconnaître les droits de la communauté et la société civile locale.
- A Community Charter (Falkirk, UK) (Texte)
- Airth UOG Community Discussion Outcomes (Texte)
- Avonbridge and Standburn UOG Community Discussion (Texte)
- Bo'ness UOG Community Discussion (Texte)
- Bonnybridge UOG Community Discussion Outcomes (Texte)
- Community Chartering and Connecting Scotland Submission to the Scottish Unconventional Oil and Gas Consultation 2017 (Texte)
- Denny and Dunipace UOG Community Discussion Outcomes (Texte)
- Grangemouth and Skinflats UOG Community Discussion Outcomes (Texte)
- How to make a Community Charter (Texte)
- Shieldhill and California UOG Community Discussion Outcomes (Texte)
Enjeu(x) : Co-création Démocratie participative
Action(s) : Charte
Résultat(s) attendu(s) : Communs de voisinage
This initiative draws upon a document that was co-created by community councils, communities in and around Falkirk, Scotland in conjunction with the association known as Community Chartering in 2013. This document is a rights-based charter written mainly by communities who seek to preserve natural health, namely a clean environmental and rich ecosystem, and social health, namely a healthy local economy, trustworthy elected officials, and food security, as their surrounding lands get threatened by large energy and development projects. The initiative was originally based on protecting communities' surrounding areas from coal-bed methane extraction plans. The communities gained much support because this document served as a form of protection against unconventional gas drilling as it had many environmental guidelines and related human rights. Because of such a charter, the Scottish Government put a moratorium on conventional gas drilling in the area, a victory that can be claimed by the communities behind this charter. The charter itself is based on guidelines proposed by Environmental Impact Assessments from the UN Convention and EU directives. In addition, any time a development project proposal takes place in the area, the communities use this charter to engage in dialogue with developers, land-owners, and planning authorities.
There are several reasons why this project is directly linked to the initiatives introduced by the Atlas of the Charter of Urban Commons project. Following the guidelines of community chartering, the communities behind the Falkirk Charter have been able to co-create this document with legal officials using legal tools to defend their rights. The dynamic of co-creation is a common theme, and it means that communities are able to influence the government officials to protect their local lands, which is something commons charters are tasked to do from the beginning. This document is also based on an environmental initiative, which a strong point when looking at charters of commons around the world. Since the land was previously threatened by unconventional gas drilling, the communities used a charter to win a moratorium. Therefore, charters can provide communities with the leverage they need to have their voices heard. It also becomes an effective document in protecting their natural health, which is a big deal in a time of climate change. Such success stories provide perfect examples of community chartering, which is a dynamic that must be reinstated in the creation of the commons.